The researchers and writers note that between 13-25% of respondents were wary of sharing lots of personal data in order to receive the card. Moreover, in practice, they found a majority of respondents were required to present the national ID to access public services, making it a defacto single identity source in the country.
Problematically, many of those who were required to present national ID to access a public service were denied, as no alternative options were available.
The authors note this application of a singular identity number can be inherently discriminatory:
The authors therefore recommend a review of the National Identity number system by the Ugandan government, civil society and development organizations.