Using the example of RUT - Chile's ID system - Privacy International demonstrates how a pervasive ID system can exclude people from basic services as well as label them as "lesser".
For example, RUT is used for government services and critical activities such as opening bank accounts and health insurance. But it also extends to buying groceries at supermarkets where it is linked to loyalty schemes.
For those without a RUT the implications are varied and far reaching - from getting vital medical treatment to using a local supermarket like your friends and neighbours.
And, Privacy International argues, lack of ID tends to disproportionately affect the most vulnerable members of society, in Chile's case more than 2.3 million Venezuelan immigrants.