The trio of Gelb, Mukherjee, and Navis take a measured approach to evaluating “ID, mobiles, and payments to improve the capacity of governments” (which they refer to as “JAM” throughout) across the globe. They use the Sustainable Development Goals to conduct their analysis.
They investigate common problems solved by JAM, how JAM coverage looks in different countries, potential public policies toward universal applications of JAM, options for efficient pricing and equity, social protection, and options for achievable real-time governance. They state:
The trio conclude there is a long way to go to ensure JAM programs are universally accessible and adopted by governments. They also note oversight of JAM will continue to evolve as citizens and states adjust to “digital first” thinking.